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Infants and Children
The investigators demonstrated that two methods used to measure the course of the disease in adults are also valid in children: numbers of CD4 immune cells - or T-helper cells - and levels of viral RNA in the blood. Palumbo explains that the study was needed because infected infants always show high levels of the virus shortly after birth - when their immune systems are just developing - but only some will actually develop AIDS.
The research indicated that children with low levels of CD4 cells and high levels of virus are likely to develop full-blown AIDS, and will probably benefit from the "cocktails" of protease inhibitors that have been successfully used in treating some adults. "Physicians need to learn more about the appropriate dosages of these drugs for children," says Palumbo. "There's been a real lack of information in this area."
The study involved 566 infants and children from 3 months to 18, who
were each followed for an average 32-month period in a large, multicenter
Tools of the Trade and Rules of the Road: A Surgical Guide
Edited by Edwin A. Deitch, MD Lippincott-Raven
How does one learn to be a surgeon? The learning begins in the classroom and continues in the operating room. Yet some of the most basic surgical lessons are not formally taught in either location. This book, edited by the chair of the Department of Surgery at UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School and chief of surgery at UMDNJ-University Hospital, maps out fundamental surgical guidelines and techniques in a forthright, easy-to-read style. The book covers such topics as knot-tying, retractor selection, techniques for stopping bleeding, and even operating room etiquette. Contributing writers include faculty members and medical residents at UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School. Hundreds of elegant, detailed line drawings illustrate surgical principles and techniques. The book is a useful learning and teaching resource for anyone with an interest in surgery, including medical students, residents, and attending physicians.
A sense of humor-and of the absurd-characterizes this collection of 22 essays by Allen B. Weisse, a cardiologist and retired professor of medicine at UMDNJ-NJMS. Weisse addresses many serious aspects of medicine, including admission to medical school and the competitive world of medical research, while touching on humorous issues as well: for example, a dispute with the IRS. The book's thoughtful conclusion: insights for physicians on knowing when it's time to retire.
John Bodgen, PhD, professor, Preventive Medicine and Community Health, received a three-year, $821,392 grant from NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute to study "Blood Lead Stores and Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension."
Thomas Denny, BS, associate professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, and director, Center for Laboratory Investigations, Pediatrics, received a one-year, $256,849 grant from NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study "Immune Responses to a Cochleate-HIV Subunit Vaccine."
Marvin Kirschner, MD, professor, Medicine, received a one-year, $100,000 grant from the National Blood Institute Healthcare Foundation for the "Development of a Program for Treatment of Obesity in the Inner City."
Benjamin Natelson, MD, professor, Neurosciences, received a one-year, $624,481 grant from NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study "A Syndromic Approach to the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome."
Paul Palumbo, MD, associate professor, Pediatrics, received a one-year, $641,817 grant from CDC for "Epidemiological Research Studies for AIDS and HIV Infection."
Beth Pletcher, MD, assistant professor, Pediatrics, received a three-year, $371,330 grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration for "Incorporating Genetics Into Primary Care Practice."
Hreday Sapru, PhD, professor, Neurosurgery and Pharmacology, received a four-year, $890,417 grant from NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institutes to study "Cardiorespiratory Regulatory Mechanisms."
Paulette Stanford, MD, assistant professor, Clinical Pediatrics, received a three-year, $589,887 grant from NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development for her "Adolescent HIV Research Project."
Gerson Weiss, MD, professor and chair, Obstetrics and Gynecology, received a one-year, $381,622 grant from NIH/National Institute of Aging to study "Gynecologic Impact of the Menopausal Transition."
Marco Zarbin, MD, PhD, chair and associate professor, Ophthalmology, received a four-year, $696,412 grant from the National Eye Institute to study "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Transplantation as a Treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration."
Joel DeLisa, MD, professor and chair, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, was elected for a three-year term to the Executive Committee of the American Board of Medical Specialties.
Gerson Weiss, MD, professor and chair, Obstetrics and Gynecology, will serve a two-year term as president-elect of the Council of University Chairs of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Weiss is currently treasurer of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and a member of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. He is also chair of the Gynecologic Practice Committee of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Marco Zarbin, MD, PhD, chair and associate professor, Ophthalmology, was named a member of the Executive Committee of the Retina Society, an organization of retinal specialists.
A Non-Drug Approach to Hypertension
Many older adults can lower their blood pressure and reduce or eliminate their blood pressure medications by losing weight and limiting their salt intake, reports John B. Kostis, MD, chair of the Department of Medicine at UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.
These are the findings of a four-year study involving 875 men and women, age 60 to 80 -585 obese patients and 390 who were not overweight - at four centers across the country. More than half of the patients who lost eight pounds and reduced their intake of salt by just 25 percent were able to stop taking hypertension medication while maintaining normal blood pressure for an average of 30 months. Study results were published in the March 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Kostis advises that discontinuing medications should only be done under the supervision of a physician. Doctors in the study weaned their patients from medication after three months of weight and salt reduction. Only those whose blood pressure remained normal were kept off the drugs.
While a two-pronged approach is best, the researcher says that in the group concentrating on sodium reduction, 31 percent were able to stay off their medications and in the weight reduction group, 36 percent could stop taking the drugs. Among those combining salt and weight reduction, 53 percent were able to quit taking hypertension drugs.
Clifton Lacy, MD, Daniel Shindler, MD, and Alan C. Wilson, MD, Department of Medicine, and Raymond Rosen, MD, Psychiatry Department, assisted in the study. The other participating centers were the Johns Hopkins University, the University of Tennessee in Memphis, and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine at Wake Forest University.
by Michael Lewis, PhD
The Guilford Press
If you believe that early childhood experiences dictate the development of adult personality, then you'll want to read Michael Lewis's "Altering Fate." You just might come away from your reading with a far more positive outlook on the ability of human beings to outrun the limitations of their early lives.
Lewis, University Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics and Psychiatry at UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, refutes a theory of personality development that is pervasive in our culture: that an infant who does not have a good relationship with his mother or a child whose early home life is traumatic will almost certainly end up as a troubled - and probably troublesome - adult. He contends that our early lives do not determine who we become.
The psychologist - who has published 300 professional articles and 14 books and has edited 24 books-postulates that human beings adapt to the constant changes and unpredictability of life, and in so doing, are constantly changing themselves. Many individuals even reshape their pasts to serve them better in the present, he says.
This theory is particularly important in providing what Lewis calls a new framework for social intervention strategies. He does not subscribe to a model "depicting passive human beings closed by their past" - so what we do in the present becomes all important.
He writes: "People are capable of altering the course and trajectory of their lives... I believe that human nature is such that change is always possible."
Although we can not predict the future, says the psychologist, we can make a "commitment to care for each other now" and teach children "to care for others."This simple conclusion is full of hope that each of us can alter our fate for the better, and that together we can change the current culture of violence that surrounds us.
Gail Ferstandig Arnold, PhD, associate member of the graduate program, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and senior research scientist, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (CABM), and Edward Arnold, PhD, adjunct professor, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and resident faculty member, CABM, received a four-year, $542,139 grant from NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study "Immunogenicity and Structure of Rhinovirus: HIV Chimeras."
Kiron Das, MD, PhD, professor, Medicine, received a five-year, $1,625,977 grant from NIH to study "Autoimmune Mechanism in Ulcerative Colitis."
Avedis Khachadurian, MD, professor, Medicine, received a 28-week, $99,250 grant from Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation for a "Double-Blind and Observer-Blind to Lipid Values, Active Controlled, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Fluvastatin Slow Release Form (80mg) Administered Once Daily at Bedtime in Patients with Primary Hypercholesterolemia Compared to Lesco40 mg."
George Lambert, MD, associate professor, Pediatrics, and director, Pediatric Pharmacology and Toxicology, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), received a three-year, $610,000 grant from the Environmental Protection Agency to examine the "Effects of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Chemicals on Sexual Maturation in Humans."
Jeffrey Laskin, PhD, professor and chief, Division of Toxicology, Environmental and Community Medicine, and member, EOHSI, received a five-year, $4,948,565 grant from NIH to study the "Role of Nitric Oxide in Chemical Induced Toxicity."
Peter Lobel, PhD, associate professor, Pharmacology, received a four-year, $763,000 grant from NIH to study "Molecular Basis of Lysosomal Enzyme Targeting."
Matthew Menza, MD, associate professor, Psychiatry, received a one-year, $174,212 grant from Pfizer, Inc. for "A Phase II Randomized Trial, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Ziprasidone in Patients with Mania."
Judith Neubauer, PhD, associate dean and associate professor, Medicine, received a four-year, $960,000 grant from NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute to study "Hypoxic Responses of Medullary Cardiovascular Neurons."
John Pintar, PhD, professor, Neuroscience and Cell Biology, received a five-year, $1,781,286 grant from NIH/National Institute of Drug Abuse for "Genetic Studies of Opioid Receptor Functions."
George Rhoads, MD, MPH, endowed professor, Environmental and Community Medicine, and director, Environmental Health Division, the New Jersey Graduate Program in Public Health, EOHSI, received a five-year, $1,189,223 grant from the National Cancer Institute to evaluate whether "Prostate Specific Antigen Screen Reduces Prostate Cancer Mortality."
James Zheng, PhD, assistant professor, Neuroscience and Cell Biology, received a four-year, $254,689 grant from the American Heart Association to study "Mechanisms of Nerve Growth Cone Turning."
Michael Gochfeld, MD, PhD, clinical professor, Occupational Health, and director, Occupational Medicine Residency Program, EOHSI, served as chair of the Governor's Mercury Pollution Task Force.
Bernard Goldstein, MD, chair, Environmental and Community Medicine, and director, EOHSI, was named by the National Academy of Sciences to chair the Committee on Evaluation of Environmental Protection Agency Guidelines for Exposure to Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials.
Paul Lioy, PhD, professor, Environmental and Community Medicine, deputy director, EOHSI, and director, Exposure Measurement and Assessment Division, EOHSI, was named a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter.
Mark Robson, PhD, MPH, adjunct assistant professor, Environmental and Community Medicine, and executive director, EOHSI, was named by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to chair the Peer Review Committee for the National Agricultural Health Study.
Arthur Upton, MD, clinical professor, Environmental and Community Medicine, and member, EOHSI, was appointed a member of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee.
"Human Rhinovirus Type 14: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) V3 Loop Chimeras from a Combinatorial Library Induce Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses Against HIV-1," coauthored by Allen Smith, PhD, research associate, CABM, Sheila Geisler, PhD, laboratory researcher, CABM, Dawn Resnick, PhD, post doctoral research associate, CABM, Edward Arnold, PhD, resident faculty member, CABM, and adjunct professor, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Gail Ferstandig Arnold, PhD, senior research scientist, CABM, and member of the graduate faculty, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, et al, was published in Journal of Virology, Vol. 72 - January 1998.
Paul Lehrer, MD, professor, Psychiatry, served as visiting professor at the Psychological Institute, Tsukuba University, Japan. During that time, he researched the respiratory psychophysiology of Zen meditation, in collaboration with his Japanese colleagues. Lehrer also lectured at the Psychological Institute, University of Tsukuba, Waseda University and Nihan University in Tokyo.
Gregory Borah, MD, professor and chair, Plastic Surgery, was elected Historian of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, the largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons in the US.
Robert Hamer, PhD, adjunct assistant professor, Psychiatry, was appointed a member of the Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee of the Food and Drug Administration for a three-year term.
Patricia Kay, MD, associate professor, Clinical Psychiatry, was appointed to the National Board of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.
Eric Rubin, MD, assistant professor, Pharmacology, was appointed to the Editorial Board of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Loretta Mueller, DO, assistant professor, Clinical Family Medicine, and R.M. Gallagher, DO, vice dean, and professor, Family Medicine, received a one-year, $90,000 grant from Zeneca Pharmaceuticals for "A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial of Zolmitriptan (Zomig) for the Treatment of Menstrual-Associated Migraine Headaches."
Peter Stein, PhD, professor, Surgery, received a four-year, $1,300,000 grant from NIH/National Institute of Aging to study "Bedrest and Protein Loss in the Elderly"; Charles Cortes, PhD, Neuromusculoskeletal Institute/Rehabilitation Medicine, also received a three-year, $238,000 Minority Scientist Supplement grant, under the main grant.
"Cell Membrane Lipid Composition and Distribution: Implications for Cell Function and Lessons Learned from Photoreceptors and Platelets," by Richard Schimmel, PhD, associate dean, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and associate professor, Cell Biology, and Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, PhD, assistant professor, Molecular Biology, was in the Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 200 - September 1997.
"Do Women Medical Students Out-Perform Men in Obstetrics and Gynecology?" by Paul Krueger, DO, acting chair, Obstetrics and Gynecology, was in Academic Medicine, Vol. 73 - January 1998.
"Estrogen, Cognition and Alzheimer's Disease," by Anita Chopra, MD, assistant professor, Clinical Medicine, and Stephen Scheinthal, DO, assistant professor, Clinical Psychiatry, was in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Vol. 97 - November 1997.
"Hydroxyzine Pamoate as an Analgesic for Headache," by R.M. Gallagher, DO, vice dean, and professor, Family Medicine; Loretta Mueller, DO, assistant professor, Clinical Family Medicine; and Carman Ciervo, DO, acting chair, Family Medicine, and assistant professor, Clinical Family Medicine, was in Headache Quarterly, Vol. 4 - 1997.
"Malpractice Risks Associated With Prescribing Medication for Chronic Headache," by Gary McAbee, DO, JD, chair, Pediatrics, was in Headache, Vol 38 - January 1998.
Elyse Perweiler, RN, MPP, associate director for planning and development, Center for Aging, was elected to the Board of Directors of the National Alzheimer's Association for a two-year term.
by Margie Palatini
Illustrated by Howard Fine Clarion Books
This sardonically humorous tale was illustrated by UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School (NJDS) student Howard Fine. Before coming to NJDS in 1994, 37-year-old Fine studied at Bucknell University and the Philadelphia College of Art.
Fine says his wife, a physician, encouraged him to go to dental school, when his art career was not taking the direction he had anticipated. Now a senior at NJDS, he plans to practice dentistry and continue his art career after graduation.
David Sirois, DMD, PhD, assistant professor, Oral Pathology, Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, received a one-year, $322,000 grant from the EMA Ryan White Title I HIV Emergency Relief Fund for "Comprehensive Oral Health Care Services for Patients with HIV Infections."
Norman Betts, DDS, MS, associate professor and chair, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, presented "The Evaluation and Treatment of Midface and Mandibular Trauma" at the U.S. Dental Activity - Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC, and "Reconstruction of the Severely Resorbed Maxilla" to members of the Eastern Dental Society in NY.
Blaise Curcio, DMD, MA, associate professor of Clinical, General and Hospital Dentistry, presented "SOS - Simplicity, Organization, Standardization: A Message for the Millennium" at the annual session of the American Dental Association in Washington, DC.
Pamela Alberto, DMD, clinical associate professor, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, was certified as a diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Dentistry.
Paul Desjardins, DMD, PhD, associate dean and professor, Oral Pathology, Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, was awarded the first Stephen Leeper Excellence in Teaching Award by the Supreme Chapter of Omicron Kappa Upsilon (OKU), the national dental society for students and faculty.
Mel Kantor, DDS, adjunct associate professor, Oral Pathology, Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, was elected to a three-year term on the nominating committee of the American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology.
E. Dianne Rekow, DDS, PhD, professor and chair, Orthodontics, was appointed consultant to the Food and Drug Administration's dental products division.
Harry Zohn, DMD, clinical associate professor, Periodontics, was inducted as a Fellow in the American College of Dentists.
"Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Isolates from HIV-Positive Adults," by Andrei Barasch, DMD, assistant professor, Oral Pathology, Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, was published in the Journal of Dental Research,Vol. 77 - January 1998.
"Enamel Subsurface Damage Due to Tooth Preparation with Diamonds," coauthored by E. Dianne Rekow, DDS, PhD, professor and chair, Orthodontics, was published in the Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 76 - 1997.
"Saliva: A Convenient Source of DNA for Analysis of Bi-allelic Polymorphisms of Fc Gamma Receptor IIA and IIB," coauthored by Mark Wilson, PhD, professor, Oral Biology, Pathology and Diagnostic Sciences, was published in the Journal of Immunological Methods, Vol. 208 - October 1997.
Kenneth Gill, PhD, associate professor, Clinical Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Behavioral Health Care, received a one-year, $75,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Education/Rehabilitation Services Administration to study "Long Term Training - Undergraduate Education." New Jersey Medical School
The Master of Science Physical Therapy Program received a one-year, $400,000 grant from the Newark Board of Education to provide a comprehensive program of physical and occupational therapy services to the Newark school district.
"Determining Educational Preparation Based on Job Competencies of Entry-Level Dietetics Practitioners," coauthored by Julie O'Sullivan Maillet, PhD, professor and chair, Primary Care, and associate dean, Academic Affairs and Research, was published in JAMA, Vol. 277 - March 1997.
"Developmental Immunotoxicity of Cocaine and Ethanol in Postnatal Lewis Rats," by Rita Turkall, PhD, professor and chair, Clinical Laboratory Sciences and director, Toxicology Program, was published in Immunopharmacology, Vol. 97 - 1997.
"Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy,"by David Paulk, MS, PA-C, assistant professor, Physician Assistant Program, Piscataway, was published in Physician Assistant, Vol. 21 - June 1997.
"Nutritional Needs in the AIDS Patient: Recognizing and Treating Wasting Syndrome," coauthored by Riva Touger-Decker, PhD, assistant professor and director, Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition, was published in Advance for Nurse Practitioners, June 1997.
"The Uncommon Gastrointestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Blastocystis, Isospora, Dientamoeba and Balantidium," a book chapter by Elaine Keohane, PhD, associate professor, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, and director, Medical Technology Program, was published in Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 17 - 1997.
"Visual-Imitative Dissociation Apraxia," coauthored by Alma Merians, PhD, chair and director, Master of Science in Physical Therapy, Newark, was published in Neuropsychologia, Vol. 35 - November 1997.
"What Physician Assistants Should Know About Nutrition," by Julie O'Sullivan Maillet, PhD, professor and chair, Primary Care, and associate dean, Academic Affairs and Research; Ruth Fixelle, PA-C, professor, Clinical Physician Assistant Program, Newark, and director, Physician Assistant Program, Piscataway; and Joseph Thornton, PA-C, clinical assistant professor and director, Physician Assistant Program, Newark, was published in Topics in Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 12 - June 1997.
Patricia Quinn McGinnis, MS, PT, clinical assistant professor, Masters of Physical Therapy Program, Stratford, presented "Correlation of Functional Reach and Functional Independence Measure During Inpatient Rehabilitation for Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident," at the 1998 Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association in Boston, MA.
William Clark, EdM, RRT, assistant professor, Respiratory Therapy and Technician Programs, Newark, was elected to the Board of Directors of the American Association for Respiratory Care.
Teresa Marsico, CNM, MEd, associate professor, Nurse Midwifery Program, was appointed to a three-year term as coordinator of the Site Visitor Panel of the Division of Accreditation Governing Board of the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Craig Scanlan, EdD, professor and director, Respiratory Therapy and Technician Programs, Newark, was appointed to the editorial board of the new International Journal of Health Professions Research and Practice.
Spring - Summer 1998 Table of Contents